Article : Prevalence of hypertension, obesity, hematuria and proteinuria amongst healthy adolescents living in Western Saudi Arabia

Kholoud A. Hothan, Bashaer A. Alasmari, Omniya K. Alkhelaiwi, Khalid M. Althagafi, Abdulaziz A. Alkhaldi, Ahmed K. Alfityani, Muhannad M. Aladawi, Sara N. Sharief, Sherif El Desoky, Jameela A. Kari


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hypertension, obesity, hematuria, and proteinuria among healthy adolescents and to determine the associated risk factors.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 8 intermediate schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between March 2015 and June 2015. Samples were selected randomly and equal proportions from each school for both genders were ensured. Both blood pressure and body mass index were measured and a brief questionnaire was filled out for the specified studied group. Urine dipstick analysis was carried out for 294 children. A second questionnaire was completed for hypertensive and obese subjects in addition to those with hematuria and proteinuria.

Results: A total of 401 children (200 males) with a mean (SD) age of 13.87 (1.27) were included. Hypertension was found in 17.2% with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Pre-hypertension was found in 4.2% of our sample with a male to female ratio of 2.1:1. Obesity was found in 19.2% with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Obesity was found to be the most significant risk factor for hypertension with  a related risk: 2.87, 95% and confidence interval: 1.9-4.3. For urine abnormalities, 10.2% of samples were positive for proteinuria, 17% for hematuria, and 3.1% for both. 

Conclusion: It was found that there is a positive correlation between the incidence of obesity and hypertension in adolescents. Hematuria and proteinuria were also found to be high. Screening and prevention programs are therefore recommended. 

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